What is academic writing and scientific text – features and genres of writing

What is academic writing and scientific text – features and genres of writing

This knowledge is necessary for researchers who want to develop in scientific fields, especially at the international level. The academic style is distinguished by a clear structure, clarity of presentation of thoughts, and the absence of errors in the text.

From the article you will learn what academic writing is and how to master this style of presentation.

What is academic writing?

Academic writing is a style of presentation of scientific works. It is the ability to express thoughts in scientific papers in a concise and accessible form. This style features:

  • the presence of certain requirements for the structure of the text and its design;
  • the use of a scientific or journalistic style of presentation;
  • ability to argue and paraphrase;
  • the ability to correctly insert references and draw up a bibliography.

Academic writing is characterized by a concentration on the described problem, and not on the expression of personal opinion. Instead of the first person, it is preferable to use the third, to avoid the use of colloquial vocabulary, abbreviations, phraseological units. Unlike other styles, here it is allowed to repeat the same words for a better understanding of the material, less often use synonyms.

The academic style of storytelling is used in higher education institutions to maintain educational and scientific ties between countries. With its help, students, graduate students and more experienced scientists write reports, term papers and develop research activities outside their native state.

The principles of this style of writing guide the editors of international scientific journals, so it is necessary to master its skills for every scientist who wants to succeed in the world of science and publish scientific papers abroad.

Researchers from foreign countries have long used academic writing. In addition, English-speaking scientists also make a major contribution to its development. In our country, knowledge of the academic style is not so actively spread, although scientists from various fields are solving the problem – philologists, linguists, sociopsychologists, information technology specialists.

Genres of academic writing

Specialists involved in the development of the academic writing system have identified primary and secondary genres of texts. The first include the following:

  1. A scientific article is the main source of transmission of scientific and technical information; the text contains the results of a scientist’s research, logical reasoning, and substantiation of the data obtained.
  2. Review – a critical assessment of scientific work by other reputable scientists.
  3. A monograph is a work devoted to a specific topic, which is written by a researcher on the basis of a large number of found sources on scientific topics.
  4. The dissertation is a voluminous scientific work necessary for the applicant to obtain the degree of candidate/doctor of science.

Among the secondary genres are:

  1. An abstract is a text that is similar in meaning to the original source and conveys truthful information, but with the possibility of supplementing with new information.
  2. Abstract – a summary of scientific work, reflecting the essence. It can take the form of a list of abstracts on a topic or a description of the structure of an article, dissertation.
  3. Scientific discussions – the search for a solution to a specific problem through discussions, voicing contradictions, critical consideration of different points of view.

Despite the differences in content, volume and other specifics of writing, all genres of academic writing have a common feature – accuracy, clarity and consistency in the presentation of the material.

Features of academic writing in English

The English academic style is significantly different from other styles, it is considered more complex and structured. However, you can master it if you know basic English and follow certain rules. The structure of the story needs to be:

  1. introduction – a clear and short disclosure of the topic in order to bring the reader up to date;
  2. the main part is the retelling of existing information on the topic under study and the presentation of one’s own vision of the problem (this can be a literary review, discussion, consideration of a good example);
  3. conclusion – the formulation of conclusions, prospects and forecasts for the further development of the issue under study.
  4. Sometimes researchers include additional sections in their work: content, list of references, applications, references, words of gratitude.

In addition, other requirements must be met:

  1. The idea that the author wants to convey to the reader is clearly formulated, and after reading the topic is fully disclosed so that there are no questions left.
  2. The main idea of ​​scientific work is confirmed by facts and arguments.
  3. The text is faceless, it lacks the pronouns “I”, “we”.
  4. Offers are easily perceived and understood from the first time.
  5. The work is written in a certain font (most often Times New Roman, size 12, but different educational institutions put forward their own requirements).
  6. The rules of grammar, spelling, punctuation are strictly observed. Spatial reflections that are not related to the topic are absent.
  7. The text is unique, any work is checked for plagiarism, so it is written in your own words, and quotes are drawn up according to the rules with reference to the author.

Citations and references to the work of other scientists are only welcome, but they are used appropriately so that the reader understands the purpose of the citation or reference. This shows the author’s ability to conduct complex research and extract the essence from other works.
In an academic letter, it is obligatory to observe a scientific or scientific journalistic style, any information must be supported by references to the studies of other authors working in this direction. You can not use abbreviations without deciphering them, colloquial words and jargon, long and illogical sentences.

Every aspiring or established scientist who wants to achieve recognition in the international scientific community should know what academic writing is. This is a special style of presentation that is used in scientific papers and is distinguished by the observance of certain rules for the structure, content, design and other requirements.

It is important to study the academic style for graduate students, teachers and novice scientists who are engaged in science and submit their works to international journals, and the acquired skill will be useful not only in science, but also in work.

Great importance is given to the consistency and consistency of the narrative, the presence of grammatical, spelling and punctuation errors is unacceptable. When studying English academic writing, regular practice, learning grammatical and stylistic rules is important.

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  1. Stefan
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